Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

ORGANIZATION

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ORGANIZATION
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2015
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
ORGANIZATION
ORGANIZATION
 
New Residential Investment Corp. (together with its subsidiaries, “New Residential”) is a Delaware corporation that was formed as a limited liability company in September 2011 for the purpose of making real estate related investments and commenced operations on December 8, 2011. On December 20, 2012, New Residential was converted to a corporation. Newcastle Investment Corp. (“Newcastle”) was the sole stockholder of New Residential until the spin-off (Note 13), which was completed on May 15, 2013. Newcastle is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “NCT.”
 
Following the spin-off, New Residential is an independent publicly traded real estate investment trust (“REIT”) primarily focused on investing in residential mortgage related assets. New Residential is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “NRZ.”
 
New Residential has elected and intends to qualify to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As such, New Residential will generally not be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on that portion of its net income that is distributed to stockholders if it distributes at least 90% of its REIT taxable income to its stockholders by prescribed dates and complies with various other requirements. See Note 17 regarding New Residential’s taxable REIT subsidiaries.
 
New Residential has entered into a management agreement (the “Management Agreement”) with FIG LLC (the “Manager”), an affiliate of Fortress Investment Group LLC (“Fortress”), pursuant to which the Manager provides for a management team and other professionals who are responsible for implementing New Residential’s business strategy, subject to the supervision of New Residential’s Board of Directors. For its services, the Manager is entitled to management fees and incentive compensation, both defined in, and in accordance with the terms of, the Management Agreement. The Manager also manages Newcastle and investment funds that own a majority of Nationstar Mortgage LLC (“Nationstar”), a leading residential mortgage servicer, and Springleaf Holdings, Inc. (“Springleaf”), managing member of the Consumer Loan Companies (Note 9).
 
As of June 30, 2015, New Residential conducted its business through the following segments: (i) investments in Excess MSRs, (ii) investments in servicer advances, (iii) investments in real estate securities, (iv) investments in real estate loans, (v) investments in consumer loans and (vi) corporate.
 
Approximately 2.4 million shares of New Residential’s common stock were held by Fortress, through its affiliates, and its principals as of June 30, 2015. In addition, Fortress, through its affiliates, held options to purchase approximately 10.9 million shares of New Residential’s common stock as of June 30, 2015.
 
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes of New Residential have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States for interim financial reporting and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Rule 10-01 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles have been condensed or omitted. In the opinion of management, all adjustments considered necessary for a fair presentation of New Residential’s financial position, results of operations and cash flows have been included and are of a normal and recurring nature. The operating results presented for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any other interim period or for the entire year. These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with New Residential’s consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2014 and notes thereto included in New Residential’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Capitalized terms used herein, and not otherwise defined, are defined in New Residential’s consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2014.
 
Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period’s presentation. In addition, New Residential completed a one-for-two reverse stock split in October 2014 (Note 13). The impact of this reverse stock split has been retroactively applied to all periods presented.

Correction of the Financial Statements

New Residential determined during the second quarter of 2015 that purchases and sales of residential mortgage loans classified as held-for-sale upon acquisition that had been reported on the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows as cash flows from investing activities should have been reported as operating activities.

New Residential has corrected the previously presented condensed consolidated statement of cash flows for these loans. The effect of the adjustment on the presentation for the six months ended June 30, 2014 was to move $249.7 million of gross cash inflows and $247.1 million of gross cash outflows from investing activities to operating activities. This change resulted in a net reclassification of $2.6 million from investing cash flows to operating cash flows during this period. New Residential has evaluated the effect of the incorrect presentation, both qualitatively and quantitatively, and concluded that it did not materially misstate the previously issued financial statements.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenues from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606). The standard’s core principle is that a company will recognize revenue when it transfers promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. In effect, companies will be required to exercise further judgment and make more estimates prospectively. These may include identifying performance obligations in the contract, estimating the amount of variable consideration to include in the transaction price and allocating the transaction price to each separate performance obligation. ASU No. 2014-09 is effective for New Residential in the first quarter of 2017. Early adoption is not permitted. Entities have the option of using either a full retrospective or a modified approach to adopt the guidance in ASU No. 2014-09. New Residential is currently evaluating the new guidance to determine the impact it may have on its condensed consolidated financial statements.

In June 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-11, Transfers and Servicing (Topic 860): Repurchase-to-Maturity Transactions, Repurchase Financings, and Disclosures. The standard changes the accounting for repurchase-to-maturity transactions and linked repurchase financing transactions to secured borrowing accounting. ASU No. 2014-11 also expands disclosure requirements related to certain transfers of financial assets that are accounted for as sales and certain transfers accounted for as secured borrowings. ASU No. 2014-11 was effective for New Residential in the first quarter of 2015. Early adoption is not permitted. Disclosures are not required for comparative periods presented before the effective date. New Residential has determined that, as of January 1, 2015, its linked transactions (Note 10) are accounted for as secured borrowings.

In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements - Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40): Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern. The standard provides guidance on management’s responsibility to evaluate whether there is substantial doubt about an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern by requiring management to assess an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern by incorporating and expanding on certain principles that are currently in U.S. auditing standards. ASU No. 2014-15 is effective for New Residential for the annual period ending on December 31, 2016. Early adoption is permitted. New Residential is currently evaluating the new guidance to determine the impact that it may have on its condensed consolidated financial statements.
In February 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-02, Consolidation (Topic 810): Amendments to the Consolidation Analysis. The standard amends the consolidation considerations when evaluating certain limited partnerships, variable interest entities and investment funds. ASU No. 2015-02 is effective for New Residential in the first quarter of 2016.  Early adoption is permitted. New Residential does not expect the adoption of this new guidance to have an impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements.

In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-03, Interest - Imputation of Interest. The standard amends the balance sheet presentation requirements for debt issuance costs such that they are no longer recognized as deferred charges but are rather presented in the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of the related debt liability, consistent with debt discounts. ASU No. 2015-03 is effective for New Residential in the first quarter of 2016. Early adoption is permitted. New Residential has adopted ASU No. 2015-03 in June 2015 and has determined that the adoption of ASU No. 2015-03 resulted in an immaterial reclassification of its Deferred Financing Costs, Net (Note 2) to an offset of its Notes Payable (Note 11).

The FASB has recently issued or discussed a number of proposed standards on such topics as financial statement presentation, financial instruments and hedging. Some of the proposed changes are significant and could have a material impact on New Residential’s reporting. New Residential has not yet fully evaluated the potential impact of these proposals, but will make such an evaluation as the standards are finalized. 

Acquisition of HLSS Assets and Liabilities

On February 22, 2015, New Residential entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Initial Merger Agreement”) with Home Loan Servicing Solutions, Ltd., a Cayman Islands exempted company (“HLSS”) and Hexagon Merger Sub, Ltd., a Cayman Islands exempted company and a wholly owned subsidiary of New Residential (“Merger Sub”). HLSS was traded on the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC under the symbol “HLSS” until April 29, 2015, when its shares were delisted. On April 6, 2015, with the approval of their respective Boards of Directors, New Residential and HLSS, together with certain of their respective subsidiaries, entered into a Termination Agreement (the “Termination Agreement”) (providing for the termination of the Initial Merger Agreement) and simultaneously entered into a Share and Asset Purchase Agreement (the “Acquisition Agreement”).

The parties to the Acquisition Agreement included New Residential, HLSS, HLSS Advances Acquisition Corp., a Delaware corporation and wholly owned subsidiary of New Residential (“HLSS Advances”), and HLSS MSR-EBO Acquisition LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and wholly owned subsidiary of New Residential (together with HLSS Advances, the “Buyers”). Pursuant to the Acquisition Agreement, the Buyers acquired from HLSS substantially all of the assets of HLSS (including all of the issued share capital of HLSS’s first-tier subsidiaries) and assumed (and agreed to indemnify HLSS for) the liabilities of HLSS (together, the “HLSS Acquisition”), other than post-closing liabilities in an amount up to the Retained Amount (as defined below), for aggregate consideration (net of certain transaction expenses being reimbursed by HLSS), consisting of approximately $1.0 billion in cash and 28,286,980 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share (“New Residential Acquisition Common Stock”), of New Residential delivered to HLSS in a private placement. The closing of the HLSS Acquisition (the “Acquisition Closing”) occurred simultaneously with the execution of the Acquisition Agreement.

The Acquisition Agreement includes certain customary post-closing covenants of New Residential, the Buyers and HLSS. In addition, the Board of Directors of HLSS also approved a wind down plan (the “Distribution and Liquidation Plan”), pursuant to which HLSS sold the shares of New Residential Acquisition Common Stock received in the HLSS Acquisition on April 8, 2015 and distributed to HLSS shareholders the cash consideration from the HLSS Acquisition and the cash proceeds from the sale of shares of New Residential Acquisition Common Stock; provided that under the terms of the Distribution and Liquidation Plan, HLSS retained $50.0 million of cash (the “Retained Amount”) for wind down costs, of which $46.0 million remained as of June 30, 2015.

At the Acquisition Closing, HLSS Advances entered into a Services Agreement, dated as of April 6, 2015, with HLSS (the “Services Agreement”). Pursuant to the Services Agreement, HLSS Advances has agreed to manage the assets and affairs of HLSS in accordance with terms and conditions set forth therein and, in all cases, in accordance with the Distribution and Liquidation Plan. The Services Agreement provides that HLSS Advances will be responsible for the operations of HLSS and will perform (or cause to be performed) such services and activities relating to the assets and operations of HLSS as may be appropriate, including, among other things, administering the Distribution and Liquidation Plan and handling all claims, disputes or controversies in which HLSS is a party or may otherwise be involved. HLSS Advances will not be compensated by HLSS for its services under the Services Agreement but will be reimbursed by HLSS for expenses incurred on behalf of HLSS.

At the Acquisition Closing, New Residential and Merger Sub entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated April 6, 2015, with HLSS (the “New Merger Agreement”), pursuant to which, upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth therein (including the approval of HLSS’s shareholders), HLSS (which at the time of the New Merger (as defined below) will have previously sold substantially all of its assets and transferred all liabilities to the Buyers, and have distributed the proceeds (other than the Retained Amount) received from such sale to HLSS shareholders and substantially wound-down its operations) will merge with and into Merger Sub, with Merger Sub continuing as the surviving company and a wholly owned subsidiary of New Residential (the “New Merger”).

Pursuant to the New Merger Agreement, and upon the terms and conditions set forth therein, at the effective time of the New Merger (the “Effective Time”), each ordinary share of HLSS, par value $0.01 per share, issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Effective Time (other than those shares of HLSS owned by New Residential or any direct or indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of New Residential and shares of HLSS as to which dissenters’ rights have been properly exercised), will be automatically converted into the right to receive $0.704059 per share in cash, without interest.

The New Merger does not require the approval of New Residential’s shareholders. However, consummation of the New Merger is subject to, among other things: (i) approval of the New Merger by the requisite vote of HLSS’s shareholders; (ii) not more than 10% of HLSS’s issued and outstanding shares properly exercising appraisal rights as of the time immediately before the closing of the New Merger (the “New Merger Closing”); and (iii) certain other customary closing conditions. Moreover, each party’s obligation to consummate the New Merger is subject to certain other conditions, including without limitation, (i) the accuracy of the other party’s representations and warranties and (ii) the other party’s compliance with its covenants and agreements contained in the New Merger Agreement (in each case subject to customary materiality qualifiers). In addition, the obligations of New Residential and Merger Sub to consummate the New Merger are subject to the absence of any Company Material Adverse Effect (as defined in the New Merger Agreement). The New Merger Agreement may be terminated by either party under certain circumstances, including, among others: (i) if the New Merger Closing has not occurred by the nine-month anniversary of the New Merger Agreement; (ii) if a court or other governmental entity has issued a final and non-appealable order prohibiting the New Merger Closing; (iii) if HLSS fails to obtain the HLSS Shareholder Approval; and (iv) upon a material uncured breach by the other party that would result in a failure of the conditions to the New Merger Closing to be satisfied. HLSS filed a preliminary proxy statement on May 1, 2015 in connection with the New Merger, and Amendment No. 1 to the preliminary proxy statement on June 2, 2015.

The purchase price for the HLSS Acquisition includes the fair value of the common stock issued of $434.1 million, cash consideration paid of $622.0 million, HLSS seller financing of $385.2 million, and contingent cash consideration of $50.0 million. The total consideration is summarized as follows:
Total Consideration
 
Amount
Share Issuance Consideration
 
28,286,980

New Residential's 4/6/2015 share price
 
$
15.3460

Dollar Value of Share Issuance(A)
 
$
434,092

Cash Consideration
 
621,982

HLSS Seller Financing(B)
 
385,174

New Merger Payment (71,016,771 @ $0.704059)(C)
 
50,000

Total Consideration
 
$
1,491,248


(A)
Share Issuance Consideration
The share issuance consideration consists of 28.3 million newly issued shares of New Residential common stock with a par value $0.01 per share. The fair value of the common stock at the date of the acquisition was $15.3460 per share, which was New Residential’s volume weighted average share price on April 6, 2015.
(B)
HLSS Seller Financing
New Residential agreed to deliver $1.0 billion of cash purchase price, including a promise to pay an amount of $385.2 million immediately after closing from the proceeds of financing that was committed in anticipation of the HLSS Acquisition and is collateralized by certain of the HLSS assets acquired.
(C)
New Merger Payment
The New Merger Agreement, and the $50.0 million consideration related thereto, is included as a part of the business combination in conjunction with the Share and Asset Purchase Agreement. The range of outcomes for this contingent consideration is from $0 to $50.0 million, dependent on whether the New Merger is approved by HLSS shareholders and other factors.

New Residential has performed a preliminary allocation of the purchase price to HLSS’s assets and liabilities, as set forth below. The final allocation of purchase price may differ from the amounts included herein. The preliminary allocation of the total consideration, following reclassifications to conform to New Residential’s presentation, is as follows:
Total Consideration ($ in millions)
$
1,491.2

Assets
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
51.5

Servicer advances, at fair value
5,098.2

Excess mortgage servicing rights, at fair value
919.5

Residential mortgage loans, held-for-sale(A)
418.8

Deferred tax asset(B)
186.8

Investment in HLSS Ltd.
46.0

Other assets(C)
405.3

Total Assets Acquired
$
7,126.1

 
 
Liabilities
 
Notes payable
5,583.0

Deferred tax liabilities
(0.7
)
Accrued expenses and other liabilities(D)(E)
52.6

Total Liabilities Assumed
$
5,634.9

 
 
Net Assets
$
1,491.2


(A)
Represents $424.3 million UPB of GNMA early buy-out (“EBO”) residential mortgage loans not subject to ASC No. 310-30 as the contractual cash flows are guaranteed by the Federal Housing Administration (“FHA”).
(B)
Due to the difference between carryover historical tax basis and acquisition date fair value of one of HLSS’s first tier subsidiaries.
(C)
Includes restricted cash and receivables not subject to ASC No. 310-30 which New Residential has deemed fully collectible.
(D)
Includes liabilities arising from contingencies regarding ongoing HLSS matters (Note 14).
(E)
Contingencies for HLSS class action law suits have not been recognized at the acquisition date as the criteria in ASC No. 450 have not been met (Note 14).

The acquisition of HLSS resulted in no goodwill as the total consideration transferred was equal to the fair value of the net assets acquired.

Separately Recognized Transactions

Certain transactions were recognized separately from New Residential’s acquisition of assets and assumption of liabilities in the business combination. These separately recognized transactions include 1) contingent payments to the acquiree’s employees and 2) debt issuance costs.

Contingent Payment to the Acquiree’s Employees

New Residential identified both retention bonus and severance arrangements for the HLSS employees. Retention bonus payments are triggered by a change in control and continued employment for a specified period post-acquisition. As future service is required, retention bonus payments totaling approximately $1.6 million have been recognized in General and administrative expenses in New Residential’s statement of income for the three months ended June 30, 2015.

Severance is triggered by a change in control and termination without cause by New Residential within a specified period post-acquisition. As the second trigger represents an action by New Residential as the acquirer, a total amount of approximately $2.8 million has been recognized in General and administrative expenses in New Residential’s statement of income for the three months ended June 30, 2015.

Debt Issuance Costs

New Residential entered into new financing arrangements in connection with the HLSS Acquisition. Such arrangements resulted in New Residential incurring various commitment fees. Commitment fees are treated as a cost of financing and accounted for as debt issuance costs that are not considered a direct cost of the acquisition. Therefore, debt issuance costs totaling approximately $27.0 million have been recorded on the post-acquisition balance sheet of New Residential.

Unaudited Supplemental Pro Forma Financial Information - The following table presents unaudited pro forma combined Interest income and Income Before Income Taxes for the three and six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2015 prepared as if the HLSS Acquisition had been consummated on January 1, 2014.
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2015
 
2014
 
(unaudited)
 
(unaudited)
 
(unaudited)
 
(unaudited)
Pro Forma
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest income
$
184,083

 
$
187,020

 
$
349,138

 
$
364,009

Income Before Income Taxes
100,912

 
252,716

 
172,129

 
356,647



The 2015 unaudited supplemental pro forma financial information has been adjusted to exclude, and the 2014 unaudited supplemental pro forma financial information has been adjusted to include, approximately $19.1 million of acquisition-related costs incurred by New Residential and HLSS in 2015. The unaudited supplemental pro forma financial information has not been adjusted for transactions other than the HLSS Acquisition, or for the conforming of accounting policies. The unaudited supplemental pro forma financial information does not include any anticipated synergies or other anticipated benefits of the HLSS Acquisition and, accordingly, the unaudited supplemental pro forma financial information is not necessarily indicative of either future results of operations or results that might have been achieved had the HLSS Acquisition occurred on January 1, 2014.

New Residential’s condensed consolidated statements of income include interest income and income before income taxes of HLSS since the April 6, 2015 acquisition of $92.4 million and $39.8 million, respectively.

Relationship with Ocwen

HLSS and HLSS Holdings, LLC (a subsidiary of HLSS acquired by New Residential in the HLSS Acquisition) entered into a mortgage servicing rights purchase agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) with Ocwen Financial Corporation (together with its subsidiaries, including Ocwen Loan Servicing LLC, “Ocwen”), which remains in effect following the HLSS Acquisition. Pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, HLSS and HLSS Holdings purchased, among other things, the rights to certain servicing fees under MSRs in respect of private label securitization transactions, associated servicer advances and other related assets from Ocwen from time to time. The specific terms of any acquisition of such assets are documented pursuant to separate sale supplements to the Purchase Agreement executed by the parties from time to time (each a “Sale Supplement” and together, the “Sale Supplements”). As of March 31, 2015, the UPB of the mortgage loans in respect of the related MSRs equaled $156.4 billion. Ocwen consented to HLSS’s assignment of its rights and interests in connection with the HLSS Acquisition.

Because Ocwen is the servicer of the loans underlying the MSRs related to the transactions contemplated by the Purchase Agreement, New Residential pays Ocwen a monthly base fee pursuant to the applicable Sale Supplement relating to the applicable MSRs equal to 12% of the servicing fees collected thereon in any given month. This monthly base fee payable to Ocwen is expressed as a percentage of the servicing fees actually collected in any given month, which varies from month to month based on the level of collections of principal and interest for the mortgage loans serviced. Ocwen also receives a performance-based incentive fee to the extent the servicing fee revenue that it collects for any given month exceeds the sum of the monthly base fee and the retained fee. The performance-based incentive fee payable in any month is reduced if the advance ratio exceeds a predetermined level for that month. If the advance ratio is exceeded in any month, any performance-based incentive fee payable for such month will be reduced by 1-month LIBOR plus 2.75% (or 275 basis points) per annum of the amount of any such excess servicer advances.

The specific terms of the fee arrangements with respect to each pool of mortgage loans may be documented pursuant to the Sale Supplements in each case having up to an eight year term (commencing on the date of the applicable Sale Supplement). If Ocwen and New Residential do not agree to revised fee arrangements at the end of such term, New Residential may direct Ocwen to transfer servicing to a third party, and New Residential may keep any proceeds of such transfer.

The Purchase Agreement provides that New Residential will purchase from Ocwen servicer advances arising under specified servicing agreements as the servicer advances arise. The purchase price payable by New Residential for such servicer advances is equal to the outstanding balance thereof. As of April 6, 2015, the outstanding balance of servicer advances acquired from Ocwen equaled $5.6 billion.

In addition, the Purchase Agreement contemplates that New Residential may cause Ocwen to use commercially reasonable efforts to transfer servicing of the related mortgage loans to a third-party servicer upon the occurrence of various termination events. Certain termination events may have occurred under the Purchase Agreement because of downgrades in certain of Ocwen’s servicer ratings but New Residential has agreed, subject to certain limitations, not to cause Ocwen to use commercially reasonable efforts to transfer servicing of the related mortgage loans to a third-party servicer with respect to such downgrades before April 6, 2017.

The Purchase Agreement and Sale Supplements include various Ocwen warranties, representations and indemnifications relating to Ocwen’s performance of its duties as servicer.

Pursuant to an amendment to the Purchase Agreement executed in connection with the consummation of the HLSS Acquisition, such Purchase Agreement and the related Sale Supplements were amended, among other things, to (i) obtain Ocwen’s consent to the assignment by HLSS of its interest under the Purchase Agreement and each sale supplement thereto, (ii) provide that HLSS Holdings will not direct the replacement of Ocwen as servicer before April 6, 2017 except under the circumstances described in the amendment, (iii) extend the scheduled term of Ocwen’s servicing appointment under each sale supplement until the earlier of 8 years from the date of the related sale supplement and April 30, 2020 (subject to an agreement to commence negotiating in good faith for an extension of the contract term no later than six months prior to the end of the applicable term), and (iv) provide that Ocwen will reimburse HLSS Holdings, subject to specified limits, for certain increased costs resulting from further S&P servicer rating downgrades of Ocwen. In addition, pursuant to such amendment Ocwen agreed to sell to New Residential the economic beneficial rights to any right of optional termination or “clean-up call” of any trust related to any servicing agreement in respect of certain servicing fees New Residential acquired from HLSS and to exercise such rights only at New Residential’s direction. New Residential agreed to pay to Ocwen a fee in an amount equal to 0.50% of the outstanding balance of the performing mortgage loans purchased in connection with any such exercise and to pay costs and expenses of Ocwen in connection with any such exercise. Optional termination or clean up call rights generally may not be exercised until the outstanding principal balance of serviced loans is reduced to a specified balance.

HLSS Management, LLC (“HLSS Management”) (a subsidiary of HLSS acquired by New Residential in the HLSS Acquisition) has a professional services agreement with Ocwen that enables HLSS to provide certain services to Ocwen and for Ocwen to provide certain services to HLSS Management which remains in effect following the HLSS Acquisition. Services provided by New Residential under this agreement may include valuation and analysis of MSRs, capital markets activities, advance financing management, treasury management, legal services and other similar services. Services provided by Ocwen under this agreement may include business strategy, legal, tax, licensing and regulatory compliance support services, risk management services and other similar services. The services provided by the parties under this agreement are on an as-needed basis, and the fees represent actual costs incurred plus an additional markup of 15%.