SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES Basis of Accounting — The accompanying consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP’’ or “US GAAP”). The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of New Residential and its consolidated subsidiaries. All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated. New Residential consolidates those entities in which it has control over significant operating, financial and investing decisions of the entity, as well as those entities deemed to be variable interest entities (“VIEs”) in which New Residential is determined to be the primary beneficiary. For entities over which New Residential exercises significant influence, but which do not meet the requirements for consolidation, New Residential uses the equity method of accounting whereby it records its share of the underlying income of such entities. Distributions from equity method investees are classified in the Statements of Cash Flows based on the cumulative earnings approach, where all distributions up to cumulative earnings are classified as distributions of earnings.
Reclassifications — Beginning in the second quarter of 2020, the Company changed its presentation of certain balance sheet and income statement line items to better reflect changes in the business and how the Company is viewed and managed. As a result, the presentation of certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to be consistent with the current period presentation. Such reclassifications had no impact on net income, total assets, total liabilities, or stockholders’ equity.
Risks and Uncertainties — In the normal course of business, New Residential encounters primarily two significant types of economic risk: credit and market. Credit risk is the risk of default on New Residential’s investments that results from a borrower’s or counterparty’s inability or unwillingness to make contractually required payments. Market risk reflects changes in the value of investments due to changes in prepayment rates, interest rates, spreads or other market factors, including risks that impact the value of the collateral underlying New Residential’s investments. New Residential believes that the carrying values of its investments are reasonable taking into consideration these risks along with estimated prepayments, financings, collateral values, payment histories, and other information. Furthermore, for each of the periods presented, a significant portion of New Residential’s assets are dependent on its servicers’ and subservicers’ ability to perform their obligations servicing the loans underlying New Residential’s Excess MSRs, MSRs, MSR Financing Receivables, Servicer Advance Investments, Non-Agency RMBS and loans. If a servicer is terminated, New Residential’s right to receive its portion of the cash flows related to interests in servicing related assets may also be terminated.
The outbreak of the novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic around the globe continues to adversely impact the U.S. and world economies and has contributed to significant volatility in global financial and credit markets. The impact of the outbreak has evolved rapidly. The major disruptions caused by COVID-19 significantly slowed many commercial activities in the U.S., resulting in a rapid rise in unemployment claims, reduced business revenues and sharp reductions in liquidity and the fair value of many assets, including those in which the Company invests. The ultimate duration and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and response thereto remains uncertain.
New Residential is subject to significant tax risks. If New Residential were to fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, New Residential would be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax (including any applicable alternative minimum tax), which could be material. Unless entitled to relief under certain statutory provisions, New Residential would also be disqualified from treatment as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which qualification is lost.
Use of Estimates — The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Investment Consolidation and Transfers of Financial Assets — For each investment made, the Company evaluates the underlying entity that issued the securities acquired or to which the Company makes a loan to determine the appropriate accounting. A similar analysis is performed for each entity with which the Company enters into an agreement for management, servicing or related services. In performing the analysis, the Company refers to guidance in ASC 810-10, Consolidation. In situations where the Company is the transferor of financial assets, the Company refers to the guidance in ASC 860-10, Transfers and Servicing. In VIEs, an entity is subject to consolidation under ASC 810-10 if the equity investors either do not have sufficient equity at risk for the entity to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support, are unable to direct the entity’s activities or are not exposed to the entity’s losses or entitled to its residual returns. VIEs within the scope of ASC 810-10 are required to be consolidated by their primary beneficiary. The primary beneficiary of a VIE is determined to be the party that has both the power to direct the activities of a VIE that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and the obligation to absorb losses of the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE or the right to receive benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. This determination can sometimes involve complex and subjective analyses. Further, ASC 810-10 also requires ongoing assessments of whether an enterprise is the primary beneficiary of a VIE. In accordance with ASC 810-10, all transferees, including variable interest entities, must be evaluated for consolidation. If the Company determines that consolidation is not required, it will then assess whether the transfer of the underlying assets would qualify as a sale, should be accounted for as secured financings under GAAP, or should be accounted for as an equity method investment, depending on the circumstances.
A Special Purpose Entity (“SPE”) is an entity designed to fulfill a specific limited need of the company that organized it. SPEs are often used to facilitate transactions that involve securitizing financial assets or resecuritizing previously securitized financial assets. The objective of such transactions may include obtaining non-recourse financing, obtaining liquidity or refinancing the
underlying securitized financial assets on improved terms. Securitization involves transferring assets to an SPE to convert all or a portion of those assets into cash before they would have been realized in the normal course of business through the SPE’s issuance of debt or equity instruments. Investors in an SPE usually have recourse only to the assets in the SPE and depending on the overall structure of the transaction, may benefit from various forms of credit enhancement, such as over-collateralization in the form of excess assets in the SPE, priority with respect to receipt of cash flows relative to holders of other debt or equity instruments issued by the SPE, or a line of credit or other form of liquidity agreement that is designed with the objective of ensuring that investors receive principal and/or interest cash flow on the investment in accordance with the terms of their investment agreement.
The Company may periodically enter into transactions in which it transfers assets to a third party. Upon a transfer of financial assets, the Company will sometimes retain or acquire subordinated interests in the related assets. Pursuant to ASC 860-10, a determination must be made as to whether a transferor has surrendered control over transferred financial assets. That determination must consider the transferor’s continuing involvement in the transferred financial asset, including all arrangements or agreements made contemporaneously with, or in contemplation of, the transfer, even if they were not entered into at the time of the transfer. The financial components approach under ASC 860-10 limits the circumstances in which a financial asset, or portion of a financial asset, should be derecognized when the transferor has not transferred the entire original financial asset to an entity that is not consolidated with the transferor in the financial statements being presented and/or when the transferor has continuing involvement with the transferred financial asset. It defines the term “participating interest” to establish specific conditions for reporting a transfer of a portion of a financial asset as a sale. Under ASC 860-10, after a transfer of financial assets that meets the criteria for treatment as a sale-legal isolation, ability of transferee to pledge or exchange the transferred assets without constraint and transferred control-an entity recognizes the financial and servicing assets it acquired or retained and the liabilities it has incurred, derecognizes financial assets it has sold and derecognizes liabilities when extinguished. The transferor would then determine the gain or loss on sale of financial assets by allocating the carrying value of the underlying mortgage between securities or loans sold and the interests retained based on their fair values. The gain or loss on sale is the difference between the cash proceeds from the sale and the amount allocated to the securities or loans sold. When a transfer of financial assets does not qualify for sale accounting, ASC 860-10 requires the transfer to be accounted for as a secured borrowing with a pledge of collateral.
From time to time, the Company may securitize mortgage loans it holds if such financing is available. Depending upon the structure of the securitization transaction, these transactions will be recorded in accordance with ASC 860-10 and will be accounted for as either a sale and the loans will be removed from the Consolidated Balance Sheets or as a financing and the loans will remain on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. ASC 860-10 is a standard that may require the Company to exercise significant judgment in determining whether a transaction should be recorded as a sale or a financing
Excess MSRs — Excess MSRs refer to the excess servicing spread related to mortgage servicing rights, whose underlying collateral is securitized in a trust. Upon acquisition, New Residential has elected to record each of such investments at fair value. New Residential elected to record its investments at fair value in order to provide users of the financial statements with better information regarding the effects of prepayment risk and other market factors on Excess MSRs. Under this election, New Residential records a valuation adjustment on its Excess MSRs on a quarterly basis to recognize the changes in fair value in net income. Excess MSRs are aggregated into pools as applicable; each pool of Excess MSRs is accounted for in the aggregate. Interest income for Excess MSRs is accreted into interest income on an effective yield or “interest” method, based upon the expected excess mortgage servicing amount through the expected life of the underlying mortgages. Changes to expected cash flows result in a cumulative retrospective adjustment, which will be recorded in the period in which the change in expected cash flows occurs. Under the retrospective method, the interest income recognized for a reporting period is measured as the difference between the amortized cost basis at the end of the period and the amortized cost basis at the beginning of the period, plus any cash received during the period. The amortized cost basis is calculated as the present value of estimated future cash flows using an effective yield, which is the yield that equates all past actual and current estimated future cash flows to the initial investment. In addition, New Residential’s policy is to recognize interest income only on its Excess MSRs in existing eligible underlying mortgages. The difference between the fair value of Excess MSRs and their amortized cost basis is recorded as Change in fair value of investments. Fair value is generally determined by discounting the expected future cash flows using discount rates that incorporate the market risks and liquidity premium specific to the Excess MSRs, and therefore may differ from their effective yields.
MSRs — MSRs represent the contractual right to service mortgage loans. The Company recognizes MSRs created through the sale of loans it originates. Under the accounting guidance for transfers and servicing, the Company initially measures a
mortgage servicing asset that qualifies for separate recognition at fair value on the date of transfer. New Residential elected to record its investments at fair value in order to provide users of the financial statements with better information regarding the effects of prepayment risk and other market factors on MSRs. Under this election, New Residential records a valuation adjustment on its MSRs on a quarterly basis to recognize the changes in fair value in net income. MSRs are aggregated into pools as applicable; each pool of MSRs is accounted for in the aggregate. Income from MSRs is recorded in Servicing revenue, net of change in fair value and comprises (i) income from the MSRs, plus or minus (ii) the mark-to-market on the MSRs including change in fair value due to realization of cash flows. Fair value is generally determined by discounting the expected future cash flows using discount rates that incorporate the market risks and liquidity premium specific to the MSRs.
MSR Financing Receivables — In certain cases, New Residential has legally purchased MSRs or the right to the economic interest in MSRs; however, New Residential has determined that the purchase agreement would not be treated as a sale under GAAP. Therefore, rather than recording an investment in MSRs, New Residential records an investment in mortgage servicing rights financing receivables. Income from this investment (net of subservicing fees) is recorded as interest income, and New Residential has elected to measure the investment at fair value, with changes in fair value flowing through Change in fair value of investments in the Consolidated Statements of Income.
Servicer Advance Investments — New Residential accounts for its Servicer Advance Investments similarly to its Excess MSRs. Interest income for Servicer Advance Investments is accreted into interest income on an effective yield or “interest” method, based upon the expected aggregate cash flows of the Servicer Advance Investments, including the basic fee component of the related MSR (but excluding any Excess MSR component) through the expected life of the underlying mortgages, net of a portion of the basic fee component of the MSR that New Residential remits to the servicer as compensation for the servicer’s servicing activities. Changes to expected cash flows result in a cumulative retrospective adjustment, which is recorded in the period in which the change in expected cash flows occurs. Refer to “—Excess MSRs” for a description of the retrospective method. Fair value is generally determined by discounting the expected future cash flows using discount rates that incorporate the market risks and liquidity premium specific to the Servicer Advance Investments, and therefore may differ from their effective yields.
Real Estate and Other Securities — Agency and Non-Agency RMBS are classified as either available-for-sale or accounted for under the fair value option. The Company determines the appropriate classification of its securities at the time they are acquired and evaluates the appropriateness of such classifications at each balance sheet date. If classified as available-for-sale, investments are carried at fair value, with net unrealized gains or losses reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income. If classified under the fair value option, changes in fair value are recorded in the Consolidated Statements of Income as a component of Change in fair value of investments.
Fair value is determined under the guidance of ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures. Management’s judgment is used to arrive at the fair value of the Company’s RMBS investments, taking into account prices obtained from third-party pricing providers and other applicable market data. The third-party pricing providers use pricing models that generally incorporate such factors as coupons, primary and secondary mortgage rates, rate reset periods, issuer, prepayment speeds, credit enhancements and expected life of the security. The Company’s application of ASC 820 guidance is discussed in further detail in Note 13.
Investment securities transactions are recorded on the trade date. At disposition, the net realized gain or loss is determined on the basis of the cost of the specific investment and is included in net income.
There are several different accounting models that may be applicable for purposes of the recognition of interest income on RMBS depending on whether the security is designated as available-for-sale or fair value option.
The following accounting models apply to RMBS classified as available-for-sale:
(i) RMBS of high credit quality rated ‘AA’ or higher that, at the time of purchase, the Company expects to collect all contractual cash flows and the security cannot be contractually prepaid in such a way that the Company would not recover substantially all of its recorded investment.
(ii) Non-Agency RMBS which are not of high credit quality at the time of purchase or that can be contractually prepaid or otherwise settled in such a way that the Company would not recover substantially all of its recorded investment.
For RMBS of high credit quality accounted for under (i) above, the Company recognizes interest income by applying the permitted “interest method,” whereby purchase premiums and discounts are amortized and accreted, respectively, as an adjustment to contractual interest income accrued at each security’s stated coupon rate. The interest method is applied at the individual security level based upon each security’s effective interest rate. The Company calculates each security’s effective interest rate at the time of purchase by solving for the discount rate that equates the present value of that security's remaining contractual cash flows (assuming no principal prepayments) to its purchase price. Because each security’s effective interest rate does not reflect an estimate of future prepayments, the Company refers to this manner of applying the interest method as the “contractual effective interest method.” When applying the contractual effective interest method to its investments in RMBS, as principal prepayments occur, a proportional amount of the unamortized premium or discount is recognized in interest income such that the contractual effective interest rate on the remaining security balance is unaffected.
For Non-Agency RMBS accounted for under (ii) above, the Company recognizes interest income by applying the required prospective level-yield methodology. Interest income under this methodology is impacted by management judgments around both the amount and timing of credit losses (defaults) and prepayments. Consequently, interest income on these Non-Agency RMBS is recognized based on the timing and amount of cash flows expected to be collected, as opposed to being based on contractual cash flows. These securities are generally purchased at a discount to the principal amount. At the original acquisition date, the Company estimates the timing and amount of cash flows expected to be collected and calculates the present value of those amounts to the Company’s purchase price. In each subsequent balance sheet date, the Company revises its estimates of the remaining timing and amount of cash flows expected to be collected. If there is a positive change in the amount and timing of future cash flows expected to be collected from the previous estimate, the effective interest rate in future accounting periods may increase resulting in an increase in the reported amount of interest income in future periods. A positive change in the amount and timing of future cash flows expected to be collected is considered to have occurred when the net present value of future cash flows expected to be collected has increased from the previous estimate. This can occur from a change in either the timing of when cash flows are expected to be collected (i.e., from changes in prepayment speeds or the timing of estimated defaults) or in the amount of cash flows expected to be collected (i.e., from reductions in estimates of future defaults). If there is a negative or adverse change in the amount and timing of future cash flows expected to be collected from the previous estimate, and the security's fair value is below its amortized cost, an impairment loss equal to the adverse change in cash flows expected to be collected, discounted using the security's effective rate before impairment, is required to be recorded in current period earnings. Additionally, while the effective interest rate used to accrete interest income after an impairment has been recognized will generally be the same, the amount of interest income recorded in future periods will decline because of the reduced balance of the amortized cost basis of the investment to which such effective interest rate is applied.
The following accounting models apply to RMBS accounted for under the fair value option:
(iii) RMBS of high credit quality rated ‘AA’ or higher that, at the time of purchase, the Company expects to collect all contractual cash flows and the security cannot be contractually prepaid in such a way that the Company would not recover substantially all of its recorded investment.
(iv) Non-Agency RMBS which are not of high credit quality at the time of purchase or that can be contractually prepaid or otherwise settled in such a way that the Company would not recover substantially all of its recorded investment.
Interest income on RMBS accounted for in (iii) above is recognized based on the stated coupon rate and the outstanding principal amount. The original purchase premium or discount is not amortized or accreted as part of interest income but rather reflected as part of the security’s fair value.
Interest income on Non-Agency RMBS accounted for in (iv) above is recognized in accordance with the model described in (ii) above.
In June 2016, FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (“CECL”). This new guidance changed how entities measure credit losses for most financial assets that are not measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized through net income. The Company adopted the new guidance as of January 1, 2020. The new guidance specifically excludes available-for-sale securities measured at fair value, with changes in fair value recognized through net income. Accordingly, the impact of the new guidance on accounting for the Company's debt securities was limited to recognition of effective yield which was historically impacted by other than temporary impairment recorded under standards prior to the adoption of CECL. As the new guidance eliminates the accounting for other than temporary impairment, this guidance impacted the Company's unrealized
and realized gain (loss) amounts. Refer to the Recent Accounting Pronouncements section regarding the impact of the adoption of the standard on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Subsequent to the adoption of CECL on January 1, 2020, the Company evaluates its RMBS classified as available-for-sale on a quarterly basis to assess whether a decline in the fair value below the amortized cost basis should be recognized in net income or other comprehensive income. The presence of an impairment is based upon a fair value decline below a security’s amortized cost basis and a corresponding adverse change in expected cash flows due to credit related factors as well as non-credit factors, such as changes in interest rates and market spreads. A security is considered to be impaired if the Company (i) intends to sell the security, (ii) will more likely than not be required to sell the security before recovering its cost basis, or (iii) does not expect to recover the security’s entire amortized cost basis, even if the Company does not intend to sell the security, or the Company believes it is more likely than not that it will be required to sell the security before recovering its cost basis. Under these scenarios, the full amount of impairment is recognized currently in net income and the cost basis of the security is adjusted. However, if the Company does not intend to sell the impaired security and it is more likely than not that it will not be required to sell before recovery, the impairment is separated into (i) the estimated amount relating to credit loss, or the credit component, and (ii) the amount relating to all other factors, or the non-credit component. Credit related impairment is recognized as an allowance on the balance sheet with a corresponding adjustment to net income, with the remainder of the loss recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). The allowance for credit loss as well as adjustment to net income can be reversed for subsequent changes in the estimate of expected credit loss. Impairment has been classified within Provision (reversal) for credit losses on securities in the Consolidated Statements of Income.
Prior to the adoption of ASU 2016-13, the Company accounted for its securities under ASC 310 and ASC 325 and evaluated securities for other-than-temporary impairment (“OTTI”) on at least a quarterly basis. The determination of whether a security was other-than-temporarily impaired involved judgments and assumptions based on subjective and objective factors. When the fair value of a real estate security was less than its amortized cost at the balance sheet date, the security was considered impaired, and the impairment was designated as either "temporary" or “other-than-temporary.”
When a real estate security was impaired, an OTTI was considered to have occurred if (i) the Company intended to sell the security (i.e., a decision has been made as of the reporting date) or (ii) it was more likely than not that the Company was required to sell the security before recovery of its amortized cost basis. If the Company intended to sell the security or if it was more likely than not that the Company was required to sell the real estate security before recovery of its amortized cost basis, the entire amount of the impairment loss, if any, was recognized in net income as a realized loss and the cost basis of the security was adjusted to its fair value. Additionally, for securities accounted for under ASC 325-40 an OTTI was deemed to have occurred when there was an adverse change in the expected cash flows to be received and the fair value of the security was less than its carrying amount. In determining whether an adverse change in cash flows occurred, the present value of the remaining cash flows, as estimated at the initial transaction date (or the last date previously revised), was compared to the present value of the expected cash flows at the current reporting date. The estimated cash flows reflected those a “market participant” would use and included observations of current information and events, and assumptions related to fluctuations in interest rates, prepayment speeds and the timing and amount of potential credit losses. Cash flows were discounted at a rate equal to the current yield used to accrete interest income. Any resulting OTTI adjustments were reflected in the Provision (reversal) for credit losses on securities line item in the Consolidated Statements of Income.
The determination as to whether an OTTI existed was subjective, given that such determination was based on information available at the time of assessment as well as the Company’s estimate of the future performance and cash flow projections for the individual security. As a result, the timing and amount of an OTTI constituted an accounting estimate that could change materially over time. Increases in interest income could have been recognized on a security on which the Company previously recorded an OTTI charge if the performance of such security subsequently improved.
Residential Mortgage Loans and Consumer Loans — The Company's loan portfolio primarily consists of residential mortgage and consumer loans. The Company’s loans are classified as (i) held-for-investment at fair value, (ii) held-for-sale at fair value or (iii) held-for-sale at lower of cost or fair value. Loans are also eligible to be accounted for under the fair value option which are recorded on the Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value and the periodic changes in fair value is recorded as a component of Change in fair value of investments in the Statements of Income. When the Company has the intent and ability to hold loans for the foreseeable future or to maturity/payoff, such loans are classified as held for investment. When the Company has the intent to sell loans, such loans are classified as held for sale.
For originated residential mortgage loans measured at fair value, New Residential reports the change in the fair value within Gain on originated mortgage loans, held-for-sale, net in the Consolidated Statements of Income. Fair value is generally determined using a market approach by utilizing either (i) the fair value of securities backed by similar mortgage loans, adjusted for certain factors to approximate the fair value of a whole mortgage loan, (ii) current commitments to purchase loans or (iii) recent observable market trades for similar loans, adjusted for credit risk and other individual loan characteristics.
For acquired residential mortgage loans measured at fair value, New Residential reports the change in the fair value within Change in fair value of investments in the Consolidated Statements of Income. Fair value is generally determined by discounting the expected future cash flows using inputs such as default rates, prepayment speeds and discount rates.
For loans measured at the lower of cost or fair value, the Company accounts for any excess of cost over fair value as a valuation allowance and include changes in the valuation allowance in Valuation and credit loss provision (reversal) on loans and real estate owned (“REO”) in the Consolidated Statements of Income in the period in which the change occurs. Purchase price discounts or premiums are deferred in a contra loan account until the related loan is sold. The deferred discounts or premiums are an adjustment to the basis of the loan and are included in the quarterly determination of the lower of cost or fair value adjustments and/or the gain or loss recognized at the time of sale.
Interest earned on residential mortgage loans measured at fair value are reported in Interest income in the Consolidated Statements of Income.
As allowed upon adoption of CECL on January 1, 2020, New Residential elected to apply the fair value option for all consumer loans. The fair value option provides an election which allows a company to irrevocably elect fair value for certain financial asset and liabilities on an instrument-by-instrument basis. The Company elected the fair value option for these loans to better align reported results with the underlying economic changes in value of the loans on the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets. Refer to the Recent Accounting Pronouncements section regarding the impact of the adoption of the standard on the Company’s consolidated financial statements. Unrealized gains (losses) from the change in fair value of consumer loans are recognized in Change in fair value of investments in the Consolidated Statements of Income. Realized gains (losses) are recorded in Gain on settlement of investments, net in the Consolidated Statements of Income. Interest income is recognized over the life of the loan using the effective interest method and is recorded on the accrual basis.
Subsequent to the adoption of CECL on January 1, 2020, the Company’s residential mortgage loans and consumer loans are carried at fair value or the lower of cost or fair value. As a result, these loans are not subject to an allowance for credit losses under the CECL impairment model.
A loan is determined to be past due when a monthly payment is due and unpaid for 30 days or more. Loans, other than PCD loans, are placed on nonaccrual status and considered non-performing when full payment of principal and interest is in doubt, which generally occurs when principal or interest is 120 days or more past due unless the loan is both well secured and in the process of collection. Loans held-for-sale are subject to the nonaccrual policy. A loan may be returned to accrual status when repayment is reasonably assured and there has been demonstrated performance under the terms of the loan or, if applicable, the terms of the restructured loan. New Residential’s ability to recognize interest income on nonaccrual loans as cash interest payments are received rather than as a reduction of the carrying value of the loans is based on the recorded loan balance being deemed fully collectible.
Mortgage Loan Repurchases — NewRez, as an approved issuer of Ginnie Mae MBS, originates and securitizes government-insured residential mortgage loans. As the issuer of the Ginnie Mae-guaranteed securitizations, NewRez has the unilateral right to repurchase loans from the securitizations when they are delinquent for more than 90 days. Loans in forbearance that are three or more consecutive payments delinquent are included as delinquent loans permitted to be repurchased. Under GAAP, NewRez is required to recognize the right to loans on its balance sheet and establish a corresponding liability upon the triggering of the repurchase right regardless of whether NewRez intends to repurchase the loans. Upon recognizing loans eligible for repurchase, the Company does not change the accounting for MSRs related to previously sold loans. Upon reacquisition of a loan the MSR is written off.
Cash and Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash — New Residential considers all highly liquid short-term investments with maturities of 90 days or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. Substantially all amounts on deposit with major financial institutions exceed insured limits. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, New Residential held: (i) $36.3 million and $64.0
million, respectively, of restricted cash related to the financing of servicer advances that has been pledged to the note holders for interest and fees payable, (ii) $4.7 million and $4.7 million, respectively, of restricted cash related to Ginnie Mae Excess MSRs, (iii) $27.0 million and $32.4 million, respectively, of restricted cash related to the financing of consumer loans, and (iv) $15.7 million and $0.0 million, respectively, of restricted cash related to the financing of real estate securities, (v) $0.1 million and $0.0 million, respectively, of restricted cash related to single family rental properties, and (vi) $51.9 million and $61.1 million, respectively, of restricted cash related to MSRs. Restricted cash also consists of cash the Company has pledged to cover variation margin with its financing and certain derivative counterparties.
Servicer Advances Receivable — Represents servicer advances due to New Residential’s servicer subsidiary, NRM (Note 6). The servicer advances receivable purchased in conjunction with MSRs are recorded with purchase discounts. Subsequent advances are recorded at cost, subject to impairment. Any related purchase discounts are accreted into servicing revenue, net (MSRs) or interest income (MSR financing receivables) on a straight-line basis over the estimated weighted average life of the advances.
Other Assets and Other Liabilities — Other assets and liabilities are composed of the following:
(A)Represents collateral posted primarily as a result of changes in fair value of New Residential’s 1) real estate securities securing its secured financing agreements and 2) derivative instruments.
(B)Represents equity investments in funds that invest in 1) a commercial redevelopment project, 2) operating companies in the single-family housing industry. The indirect investments are accounted for at fair value based on the net asset value of New Residential’s investment and as an equity method investment, respectively. Equity investments also includes an investment in Covius Holding Inc. (“Covius”), a provider of various technology-enabled services to the mortgage and real estate industries.
(C)Includes goodwill derived from the acquisition of Shellpoint Partners LLC (“Shellpoint”) and DGG RE Investments d/b/a Guardian Asset Management LLC (“Guardian”).
(D)Represents a four-year subordinated debt facility to Covius.
(E)Represents claims receivable from the FHA on early buyout (“EBO”) and reverse mortgage loans for which foreclosure has been completed and for which New Residential has made or intends to make a claim on the FHA guarantee.
Real estate owned (REO) — REO assets are those individual properties acquired by New Residential or where New Residential receives the property in satisfaction of a debt (e.g., by taking legal title or physical possession). New Residential measures REO assets at the lower of cost or fair value, with valuation changes recorded in Other income or Valuation and credit loss provision (reversal) on loans and real estate owned. REO assets are managed for prompt sale and disposition at the best possible economic value.
The following table presents activity related to the carrying value of New Residential’s investments in REO:
(A)Recognized when control of the property has transferred to the buyer.
As of December 31, 2020, New Residential had residential mortgage loans that were in the process of foreclosure with an unpaid principal balance of $290.9 million.
In addition, New Residential has recognized $16.2 million in unpaid claims receivable from FHA on Ginnie Mae EBO loans and reverse mortgage loans for which foreclosure has been completed and for which New Residential has made, or intends to make, a claim.
Goodwill — As a result of the Shellpoint and Guardian acquisitions, New Residential recorded goodwill for the consideration transferred in excess of the fair value of the net identifiable assets acquired. New Residential performs an annual assessment of goodwill on October 1 and in interim periods in case of events or circumstances that make it more likely than not that an impairment may have occurred. New Residential did not recognize any impairment for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Intangible Assets — As a result of the Shellpoint, Guardian and Ditech acquisitions, New Residential identified intangible assets in the form of licenses, customer relationships, business relationships, and tradename. New Residential recorded the intangible assets at fair value at the acquisition date and will amortize the value of finite lived intangibles into expense over the expected useful life. The licenses acquired as part of the Shellpoint acquisition and the tradename acquired as part of the Guardian acquisition were deemed to have an indefinite useful life and will be evaluated for impairment on a quarterly basis and the fair value will be assessed annually and in interim periods if indicators of impairment exist. New Residential performs an annual assessment of impairment on October 1 and in interim periods in case of events or circumstances that make it more likely than not that an impairment may have occurred. New Residential did not recognize any impairment for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Leases — New Residential determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets and Operating lease liabilities are grouped and presented as part of Other Assets and Accrued Expenses and Other Liabilities, respectively, on New Residential’s Consolidated Balance Sheets.
ROU assets represent the right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent obligations to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease ROU assets and lease liabilities are recognized at commencement date based on the net present value of lease payments over the lease term. The majority of New Residential’s lease agreements do not provide an implicit rate. As a result, New Residential used an incremental borrowing rate based on the information available as of the lease commencement dates in determining the present value of lease payments. The operating lease ROU asset reflects any upfront lease payments made as well as lease incentives received. The lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease and these are factored into the determination of the ROU asset and lease liability at lease inception when and if it is reasonably certain that New Residential will exercise that option. Lease expense for fixed lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
New Residential has certain lease agreements with non-lease components such as maintenance and executory costs, which are accounted for separately and not included in ROU assets.
ROU assets are tested for impairment whenever changes in facts or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Modification of a lease term would result in re-measurement of the lease liability and a corresponding adjustment to the ROU asset.
Income Taxes — New Residential operates so as to qualify as a REIT under the requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. Requirements for qualification as a REIT include various restrictions on ownership of New Residential’s stock, requirements concerning distribution of taxable income and certain restrictions on the nature of assets and sources of income. A REIT must distribute at least 90% of its taxable income to its stockholders (subject to certain adjustments). Distributions may extend until timely filing of New Residential’s tax return in the subsequent taxable year. Qualifying distributions of taxable income are deductible by a REIT in computing taxable income.
Certain activities of New Residential are conducted through taxable REIT subsidiaries (“TRSs”) and therefore are subject to federal and state income taxes. Accordingly, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases upon the change in tax status. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.
New Residential recognizes tax benefits for uncertain tax positions only if it is more likely than not that the position is sustainable based on its technical merits. Interest and penalties on uncertain tax positions are included as a component of the provision for income taxes in the Consolidated Statements of Income.
Secured Financing Agreements and Secured Notes and Bonds Payable — The Company finances the acquisition of certain assets within its investment portfolio using secured financing agreements, including repurchase agreements and warehouse credit facilities. Repurchase agreements and warehouse credit facilities are treated as collateralized financing transactions and carried at their contractual amounts, including accrued interest, as specified in the respective agreements. The carrying amount of the Company’s secured financing agreements and warehouse credit facilities approximates fair value. The Company pledges certain securities, loans or other assets as collateral under secured financing agreements and warehouse credit facilities with financial institutions, the terms and conditions of which are negotiated on a transaction-by-transaction basis. The amounts available to be borrowed under repurchase agreements and warehouse credit facilities are dependent upon the fair value of the securities, or loans pledged as collateral, which can fluctuate with changes in interest rates, type of security and liquidity conditions within the banking, mortgage finance and real estate industries.
Mortgage Origination Reserves — NewRez originates conventional, government-insured and nonconforming residential mortgage loans for sale and securitization. In connection with the transfer of loans to the GSEs or mortgage investors, NewRez provides representations and warranties regarding certain attributes of the loans and, subsequent to the sale, if it is determined that a sold loan is in breach of these representations and warranties, NewRez generally has an obligation to cure the breach. If NewRez is unable to cure the breach, the purchaser may require NewRez to repurchase the loan. New Residential records a
reserve for sales recourse at the time of sale to cover all potential recourse obligations based on the outstanding balance of mortgage loans subject to recourse as well as historical and estimated future loss rates. New Residential evaluates the ongoing adequacy of the reserve based on actual experience and changing circumstances, making adjustments to the reserve as deemed necessary.
Accretion and Other Amortization — As reflected on the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows, this item is composed of the following:
(A) Includes accretion of the accretable yield on PCD loans.
Change in Fair Value of Investments — This item is composed of the following:
Gain (Loss) on Settlement of Investments, Net — This item is composed of the following:
Other Income (Loss), Net — This item is composed of the following:
(A) Partly driven by transition, integration, relocation and training costs related to the Ditech Acquisition (see Note 3).
Interest Expense — New Residential finances certain investments using floating rate secured financing agreements and loans. Interest is expensed as incurred. See Note 12 for additional information.
General and Administrative Expenses — General and administrative expenses are expensed as incurred and is composed of the following:
(A) Represents miscellaneous general and administrative expenses.
Management Fee and Incentive Compensation to Affiliate — These represent amounts due to the Manager pursuant to the Management Agreement. See Note 17 for further information regarding the Management Agreement.
Offering Costs — The Company has incurred offering costs in connection with common stock offerings, registration statements, preferred stock offerings and exchanges. Where applicable, the offering costs were paid out of the proceeds of the respective offerings. Offering costs in connection with common stock offerings and costs in connection with registration statements have been accounted for as a reduction of additional paid-in capital. Offering costs in connection with preferred stock offerings have been accounted for as a reduction of their respective gross proceeds. Exchange costs in connection with the Company's preferred stock exchanges have been accounted for as a reduction to the Company's retained earnings.
Earnings (Loss) Per Share — In accordance with the provisions of ASC 260, Earnings per Share, New Residential calculates basic income (loss) per share by dividing net income (loss) available to common stockholders for the period by weighted average shares of the Company’s common stock outstanding for that period. Diluted income per share takes into account the
effect of dilutive instruments, such as stock options and warrants but uses the average share price for the period in determining the number of incremental shares that are to be added to the weighted average number of shares outstanding. In periods in which the Company records a net loss, potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the diluted loss per share calculation, as their effect on loss per share is anti-dilutive.
Comprehensive Income — Comprehensive income is defined as the change in equity of a business enterprise during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances, excluding those resulting from investments by and distributions to owners. For New Residential’s purposes, comprehensive income represents net income, as presented in the Consolidated Statements of Income, adjusted for unrealized gains or losses on certain securities classified as available for sale.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases. The standard requires that lessees recognize a right-of-use asset and corresponding lease liability on the balance sheet for most leases. The guidance applied by a lessor under ASU 2016-02 is substantially similar to existing GAAP. ASU 2016-02 was effective for New Residential in the first quarter of 2019. An entity is allowed to apply ASU 2016-02 by means of a modified retrospective transition method for all leases existing at, or entered into after, the date of initial application. The adoption of ASU 2016-02 did not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326) - Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“CECL”). The standard requires that a financial asset measured at amortized cost basis be presented at the net amount expected to be collected, net of an allowance for all expected (rather than incurred) credit losses. The measurement of expected credit losses is based on relevant information about past events, including historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect the collectability of the reported amount. The standard also changes the accounting for purchased credit deteriorated assets and available-for-sale securities, which requires the recognition of credit losses through a valuation allowance when fair value is less than amortized cost, regardless of whether the impairment is considered to be other-than-temporary. The standard provides an option to elect the fair value option for certain investments as an alternative to adopting ASU 2016-13. Lastly, an entity is required to apply ASU 2016-13 using the modified retrospective approach which requires a cumulative-effect adjustment to the balance sheet as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. The standard was effective for New Residential in the first quarter of 2020. Upon adoption of the standard, New Residential elected the fair value option on its held for investment residential mortgage and consumer loans portfolios. As a result, the Company recognized a positive adjustment of $13.7 million to retained earnings, composed of a $19.7 million increase attributable to the change in the fair value of consumer loans, net of noncontrolling interests, partially offset by a $6.0 million decrease attributable to the change in fair value of residential mortgage loans. For servicer advance receivables, the Company determined credit-related losses are not significant because of the contractual relationships with the agencies. For other assets, primarily trade receivables, the Company determined that these are short-term in nature (less than one year), and the estimated credit-related losses over the life of these receivables are not significant.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820). The standard (i) adds incremental requirements for entities to disclose (a) the amount of total gains or losses for the period recognized in other comprehensive income that is attributable to fair value changes in assets and liabilities held as of the balance sheet date and categorized within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy, (b) the range and weighted average used to develop significant unobservable inputs and (c) how the weighted average was calculated for fair value measurements categorized within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy and (ii) eliminates disclosure requirements for (a) transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 and (b) valuation processes for Level 3 fair value measurements. ASU 2018-13 was effective for New Residential in the first quarter of 2020. The adoption of ASU 2018-13 did not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting. The standard was issued to ease the accounting effects of reform to the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) and other reference rates. The standard provides optional expedients and exceptions for applying GAAP to debt, derivatives, and other contracts affected by reference rate reform. In January 2021, the FASB amended the standard to clarify option expedients and exceptions for contract modifications and hedge accounting. The standard is effective for all entities as of March 12, 2020 through December 31, 2022 and may be elected over time as reference rate reform activities occur. The Company is currently evaluating the impact the adoption of this standard would have on its consolidated financial statements.In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt–Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Topic 470) and Derivatives and Hedging–Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Topic 815). The standard simplifies the accounting for convertible instruments by reducing the number of accounting models. A convertible debt instrument will generally be reported as a single liability at its amortized cost with no separate accounting for embedded conversion features. The standard also amends the accounting for certain contracts in an entity’s own equity that are currently accounted for as derivatives because of specific settlement provisions. In addition, the new guidance eliminates the treasury stock method to calculate diluted earnings per share for convertible instruments and requires the use of the if-converted method. ASU 2020-16 is effective for New Residential beginning in the first quarter of 2022 with early adoption permitted beginning in 2021. The Company is currently evaluating the impact the adoption of this standard would have on its consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef